Đăng ký Đăng nhập

Tài liệu Toefl 2005-01


Mô tả:

Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) Đề thi TOEFL tháng 5 năm 2005. SECTION I 1. (A) Listen to a weather report (B) Decide whether to cancel the trip (C) Schedule foe trip for a later date (D) Ask other students for their opinion about the trip 2. (A) She plays tennis better than Jane does. (B) She prefers to study with Jane today. (C) She cannot play tennis with the roan today. (D) She cannot attend math class today. 3. (A) He has not yet started his lab assignment (B) He just finished his chemistry experiment. (C) He can give the woman a ride home. (D) He is tired and wants to leave 4. (A) She just received information about the art festival (B) She will help the man find information. (C) The man can easily find the information by himself. (D) The man should go to the art library. 5. (A) The book does not belong to her. (B) She prefers not to lend her books to other people. (C) The man will be able to buy the book soon. (D) The man cannot borrow the book light now. 6. (A) She did not buy a ticket for the concert. (B) She was not sure which band would be playing. (C) The band was better than she expected. (D) The man did not know the band well. 7. (A) Read the speech to her (B) Give a different speech (C) Finish writing the rest of the speech (D) Stop worrying about the speech 1 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 8. (A) She and Sally have already finished painting the apartment (B) She and Sally decided not to paint the apartment. (C)She hopes the roan will help paint the apartment. (D) She will invite the man to see the apartment after it is painted. 9. (A) She will help the man with the machine soon. (B) She thinks the man should use another machine. (C) The machine takes a few minutes to warm up. (D) Something got caught in the copy machine. 10. (A) Robert is taking a different class. (B) He is surprised the woman knows Robert. (C) The woman should be on the committee. (D) The woman should recommend additional people. 11. (A) The book had been misplaced on the shelf. (B) He can probably get a copy of the book for the woman. (C) He will call the warehouse to see if the book is available. (D) The woman should check to see if other bookstores have the book. 12. (A) She agrees with the man about got ng to the movies (B) She has heard about a good new movie. (C) She is tired of going to movies. (D) She already has plans for tonight 13. (A) It was what she had expected. (B) She may need a new floor. (C) She plans to vote for Carl, (D) She was very surprised. 14. (A) The space in the office is sufficient. (B) She does not like the desk. (C) Someone else wants the typewriter. . (D) She would like to have the typewriter removed. 2 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 15. (A) She will go to the party. (B) She has to work tonight (C) She has no plans for this afternoon. (D) She does not know, the man's roommate. 16. (A) The woman went to the wrong place, (B) The German class ended early. (C) The professor cancelled the class. (D) The woman forgot to go to class. 17. (A) Make some coffee for the woman (B) Stay up late (C) Stay overnight at a friend's house (D) Finish the paper in the morning 18. (A) He never shops at the local grocery store. (B) The woman should buy her produce from the farm. (C) The grocery store has higher quality produce. (D) It is cheaper to buy vegetables at the farm. 19. (A) Pam wants to get a job in the infirmary. (B) Pam will come home from the infirmary on the weekend. (C) The woman should get off work early to visit Para. (D) The woman could go to theinfirmary on the weekend. 20. (A) She needs to take chemistry as a requirement. (B) She was having trouble finding the chemistry room. (C) She did not realize there was a lab class. (D) She has already taken me lab class. 21. (A) Apply for a new library card (B) Go get his student ID card (C) Talk to the librarian about his ID card (D) Get the library books from his room 3 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 22. (A) He is not feeling well today. (B) He will be late for the theater club meeting. (C) He forgot to meet the woman at the theater. (D) He has not made the phone calls yet. 23. (A) He did not expect to see so many people at the lecture. (B) The lecture did not start on time. (C) Bad weather kept many people from attending the lecture. (D) Few people knew about the lecture, 24. (A) Take both sweaters along (B) Choose the warmer sweater (C) Pick the brighter-colored sweater (D) Wear a heavy coat instead of a sweater 25. (A) The manager is too busy to see the man now. (B) The manager will be available before the meeting. (C) The man should come back tomorrow. (D) The man should go to the meeting. 26. (A) She cannot use the computer now. (B) The man is not allowed to use the computer. (C) The library does not have the book the man needs. (D) The man probably will not enjoy the book. 27. (A) The letters should have had more postage (B) The letters should have been sent by airmail. (C) Airmail rates have gotten too high. (D) The man should have waited to mail the letters. 28. (A) She wants one sandwich because she is nearly full, (B) She is ready to leave as soon as the ship gets here. (C) She recently learned her school expenses win be paid next year. (D) She is surprised there is only one scholarship awarded each year. 4 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 29. (A) Kathy helped the man find a good car. (B) The man needs more time to decide about a car. (C) The man is definitely going to buy Kathy's car. (D) The man was not satisfied with the car he bought from Kathy. 30. (A) Study outside (B) Finish studying before going outside (C) Go outside now and enjoy the weather (D) Stay inside until the weather improves 31 (A) Drive her mother to the theater (B) Take care of her little brother (C) Come to the theater with her (D) Help her prepare for a class presentation 32. (A) He was difficult to understand. (B) He made her laugh. (C) He seemed well prepared. (D) He seemed nervous. 33. (A) It was a funny incident. (B) He has made the same mistake before. (C) He is worried that it will happen again. (D) The woman should be more honest with him. 34. (A) To baby-sit her little brother (B) To study with Joe (C) To see a play (D) To watch a video 35. (A) To help students improve their grades (B) To start a new student magazine (C) To provide assistance to student writers (D) To place students in jobs at publishing companies 5 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 36. (A) They work together at the library, (B) They took a class together. (C) They are on the staff of the campus literary review. (D) They met at a writer's conference. 37. (A) He is an experienced writer. (B) He is the editor of the literary review. (C) Professor Mitchell recommended hint (D) She believes he will contribute useful comments. 38. (A)Suggestions for additional assistance (B) Written critiques of their work (C) Time in class to work on their project (D) Permission to use ihe meeting room in the library 39 (A) The development of printing technology in the early United States (B) The firat newspapers in the British colonies (C) Colonial newspapers published by the British government (D) The role of newspapers in colonial elections 40. (A) He wanted 10 be free of government control (B) He could not get a job with the government newspaper. (C) He was dissatisfied with other independent newspapers. (D) He wanted to encourage colonists to learn to read. 41. (A) It was printed on a new kind of printing press. (B) It was humorous and critical* (C) It was printed on two sides* (D) It was partially founded by the government. 42. (A) They could not participate in the conversations about the news. (B) They were encouraged to go to school, (C) They received information by bearing it read to them. (D) They thought newspapers were unnecessary. 6 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 43 (A) The history of the Galileo space probe (B) Recent discoveries about one of Jupiter's moons (C) The differences between moons and planets (D) The composition of the Earth's moon 44 (A) It is larger than the planet Mercury, (B) It is covered with ice. (C) It is orbited by asteroids. (D) It creates its own magnetic field. 45 (A) A core of molten metal (B) A huge deposit of ice (C) A combination of metal and sail water (D) A thin layer of magnetic rock 46. (A) They prevented Galileo from getting too close to Ganymede. (B) They disrupted Galileo's ability to transmit images of Ganymede. (C) They indicate that Ganymede may have an atmosphere. (D) They arc the cause of Ganymede's unstable surface. 47 (A) A rare species of algae (B) The treatment of wastewater (C) A threat to the aquatic environment (D) The increasing number of algae in rivers 48 (A) They are becoming more dangerous to the user. (B) They are encouraging the growth of algae in streams (C) They are being made with fewer chemicals. (D) They are being made to kill bacteria. 49. (A) It does not remove all chemicals. (B) It encourages the growth of some bacteria. (C) It is not done on a regular basis. (D) It has been improved by new technologies, 7 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 50. (A) The role of algae in the food chain (B) The effect of household chemicals on algae (C) The detection of chemicals in wastewater (D) The creation of safer household products SECTION II PART 1 1. In the early eighteenth century, Ohio grew from a virtual wilderness to become-------of the early states had been in 1776, (A) most than more populous (B) more populous than most (C) more than most populous (D) populous most than more 2. -------in pronunciation that Canadian English asserts its distinctiveness, and it has done so from earliest times. (A) Primarily is (B) Primarily has (C) It is primarily (D) There has primarily 3. New York City. -------"Big Apple” is the largest city in the United States and has been the gateway location for repeated waves of Immigrants. (A) is the (B) which the (C) calling the (D) me 4. Surface tension is the property ------the surface of a liquid to behave as if it were covered with a weak elastic skin. (A) of which causes (B) that causes (C) that it causes (D) causes 5. While flies are frequently observed assembled in great numbers, they are not social insects------termites, bees, and ants are social. (A) sense that (B) that is the sense (C) in the sense that (D) is the sense 8 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 6. Baaed on atmospheric physics, -------is mainly applied in weather forecasting and control. (A) and meteorology (B) meteorology (C) is where meteorology (D) on meteorology 7. -------Betsy Ross did make flags during the American Revolution, the legend mat she designed and made the first national flag for the United States is generally discredited. (A) Whether (B) For (C) Although (D) In spite of 8. The heart, a rhythmically contracting muscle, is------- of the cardiovascular system. (A) the major organ (B) the organ is major (C) the organ that is major (D) how the major organ 9. Extensive deposits of salt buried far underground-------found on all continents except Antarctica. (A) toe (B) that are (C) have been (D) they are 10. Stagecoaches reached their greatest importance in the United Slates in the nineteenth century, when paved roads made travel —-~. (A) was quicker and more comfortable (B) quicker and more comfortable (C) for being quicker and more comfortable (D) quicker and more comfortable to be 11. In North America, the Nebraska culture that succeeded the Woodland culture about A.D 1300 pioneered in------to become the area's chief economic activity, agriculture. (A) it was (B) which was (C) what was (D) was 12. Contrary to some widely held beliefs-------bats, they are not blind and are not likely to attack humans. 9 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (A) concerned (B) concerning (C) to concern (D) to be concerned 13. Fragile though it may seem, straw also has-------, keeping its natural gloss and pliancy for centuries. (A) resilience is extraordinary (B) some extraordinary and resilient (C) that of extraordinarily resilient (D) extraordinary resilience 14. ------subject to rust, many examples of decorative ironwork on buildings have disappeared. (A) If iron were (B) iron is being (C) Since iron is (D) How iron is 15. The starting point for the formation of petroleum is-------that has accumulated in die sediments on the ocean floor. (A) marine plankton has decayed (B) the decay of marine plankton (C) when decaying marine plankton (D) marine plankton, the decay of which 16. In me eighteenth century, quilting became a common technique in foe American colonies for the make of coverlets sewed in floral and geometric designs. 17. The computer's complex circuitry is miniaturized inside silicon chips, wafer-thin silicon crystals with circuits electronic etched onto them. 18. Centrifuges are widely use to separate liquids having different densities or to separate solids from liquids. 19. There is ample evidence of that about 700 million years ago, glaciers reached well into what are now tropical regions. 20. Mathematics is a tool that can help solve problems and lead to new developments in other fields, such as space flight, medical, and architecture. 21. The meter of English poetry is determined by accented syllables rather by the quantities of vowels, 22. In the nineteenth-century United States, It was assumed that growth, change, and progressive 10 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) derived mainly from individual effort and competition. 23. Swelling of the mucous membranes, cause by irritants, allergies, or infections, may block the nasal passages, making breathing difficult. 24. The spearmint plant, which grows to about three feet height, has stalk less leaves and la*, tapering spikes of flowers that are usually pink or lilac. 25. Germ theory defined precisely how diseases affect tissues and described their passage from one living creature to other . 26. The rings of the planet Uranus consists primarily of boulder-sized chunks of dark matter, averaging about one meter in diameter. 27. George Inness’ rendering of distance and atmosphere raised his art above the ordinarily realism of nineteenth-century American landscape painting. 28. Not much is it known about the details of the development and acquisition of primate communication, especially in the wild. 29. Although Alaska ia the state in the United States with the largest area, Texas is the one that is divide into the largest number of counties. 30. Much of the early European colonists in North America remarked on the profusion of birds, animals, and fish . 31. The dancer and choreographer Twyla Tharp grew up in Los Angeles, California, and hers childhood included comprehensive training in music and dance. 32. Telecommunication systems involve the transmission of sound, pictures, words, and other types of information by electronic means, training in signals and satellite relays. 33. In addition to being the state capital, Albany is a focal point of trade, ship, and commerce in upstate New York. 34. Like bats, dolphins use echolocation—pulses of high-frequency sound—both to find prey and for explore their environments. 35. The American zoologist Dian Fossey conducted field studies of wild gorillas that disproved old beliefs that gorillas were violence and aggressive. 36. Delaware is the only state which the legislature can amend the state constitution without the approval of the voters . 11 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 37. The sub cutis layer of the skin contains fat and muscle that insulate internal organ and act as an energy reservoir for the body. 38. A supernova, the explosive death of a star, temporary attains a brightness of 100 million suns or more. 39, The Northern Hemisphere faces the Sun most fully during the summer solstice which occurs in about June 22, 40. San Diego has a diverse economy, deriving substantial revenue from manufacturing, maritime commerce, military installations, and agricultural active in the surrounding area. Section III Questions 1-9 Color in textiles is produced by dyeing, by printing, or by painting. Until the nineteenth century, all dyes were derived from vegetable or, more rarely, animal or mineral sources, Line Since madder plants could be grown practically everywhere, the roots of some 5 species of the madder plant family were used from the earliest period to produce a whole range of reds. Red animal dyes, derived! from certain species of scale insects, were also highly valued from ancient times through the Middle Ages. Blues were obtained from indigo, which was widely .cultivated in India and exported from there, and from woad, a plant common in Europe and also used in the Near East from the beginning of the 10 Christian era. Before the first, nonfading "solid" green was invented in the early nineteenth century, greens were achieved by the overdyeing or overprinting of yellow and blue. However, yellow dyes± whether from weld or some other plant source such 20 25 as saffron or turmeric, invariably fade or disappear. This accounts for the bluish tinge of what were once bright greens in, for example, woven tapestry. The range of natural colors was hugely expanded and, indeed, superseded by the chemical dyes developed during the eighteen hundreds. By 1900 a complete range of synthetic colors had been evolved, many of them reaching a standard of resistance to fading from exposure to light and to washing that greatly exceeded that of natural dyestuffs. Since then, [he petroleum industry has added many new chemicals, and from hese other types of dyestuffs have been developed. Much of the research in dyes was stimulated by the peculiarities of some of the new synthetic fibers- Acetate rayon, for example, seemed at first to have no affinity for dyes and a new range of dyes had to be developed; nylon and Terylene presented similar problems. The printing of textiles has involved a number of distinct methods. With the exception of printing patterns directly onto the cloth, whether by block, roller, or screen, all of these arc based on dyeing; that is, the immersion of the fabric in a dye bath. 1. The passage mainly discusses the (A) development of synthetic colors foe textiles during the nineteenth century (B) advantages of chemical dyes over dyes derived from plants and animals (C) differences between dyeing textiles and printing ihem 12 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (D) history of the use of natural and chemical dyes to color textiles 2. According to the passage, what was the source of most textile dyes that were used before the nineteenth century? (A) Animals (B) Minerals (C) Plants (D) Chemicals 3. What was the advantage of using madder plants for different shades of red? (A) It was possible to cultivate madder plants in almost every location, (B) Madder plants produced brighter colors than other plant sources. (C) Plant sources produced more lasting colors than animal sources. (D) Dyes derived from the madder plants were easier to work with than other dyes4. The word "invariably" ID line 13 is closest in meaning to (A) without exception (B) steadily (C) after some time (D) noticeably 5. It can be inferred from the passage that the green areas in woven tapestries developed a bluish tinge because (A) a darker color, like blue, dominates a light color, like yellow (B) light changed some of the green dye used in the tapestries to blue (C) the yellow dye. that was used in the tapestries had faded (D) the dyes used to color woven tapestries were made from minerals 6. The word "superseded" in line 15 is closest in meaning to (A) strengthened (B) improved (C) replaced (D) complemented 7. According to the passage, how did chemical dyes compare to natural dyes? (A) The chemical dyes had less attractive colors. (B) The chemical dyes were less easy to use. (C) The chemical dyes lost their brightness more quickly when exposed to light. (D) The chemical dyes held up belter after washing. 8 According to the passage, what problem led to the development of new dyes after 1900 ? (A) Previously developed dyes did not work on new types of fibers. (B) Dyes derived from petroleum caused damage to new synthetic fibers. 13 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (C) New synthetic fibers required brighter colors tijan natural fibers did. (D) New fabrics easily lost their colors when washed. 9. Why does the author mention "block, roller, or screen" in line 25 ? (A) To give examples of textile printing techniques that are based on dyeing (B) To argue that all methods of printing patterns onto textiles involve dyeing (C) To emphasize the variety of special tools used in me process of dyeing textiles (D) To give examples of textile printing techniques mat do not involve dyeing Questions 10-19 The strangest-looking fish in the Everglades wetland region of southern Florida is the Florida gar, whose unusual appearance includes sharp needlelike teeth that ftil a long snout. Young gars have numerous dark spots and patches on an olive to yellow, Line long, slender body. Gars darken with age so that adults appear mostly dark brown, 5 especially when seen from above. Several types of gar exist in eastern and central North America, some of which are extremely large. The aptly named alligator gar is 10 15 20 25 occasionally mistaken for an alligator and occurs from the lower Mississippi drainage basin to the rivers of the western panhandle of Florida. Only the relatively small Florida gar, seldom longer than two feet, lives in the Everglades. (The much larger long-nose gar as occasionally been found in the Everglades hut historically occurs only north of the region.) As with all gars, the Florida gar is predatory and is adept at catching smaller fish from schools by using a fast sideways snap of the jaws. It is also capable of catching individual prey, pursuing them along the bottom or in douse tangles of vegetation. Using a slow, stealthy approach, tins technique is effective on fish and grass shrimp. Florida gars are sometimes seen in huge numbers, which is the result of low water that confines individuals from the expanses of the marshes to limited aquatic habitats where they remain during the dry season. At these times, gars become prey for the alligator. The sight of a gar held in an alligator's jaws is a vision of prehistoric imagery. In fact, gars have changed little from their ancestors that dominated Earth's waters when the dinosaurs flourished; they even have primitive interlocking scales that differ greatly from those of most fish. They also have the dual ability to breathe air and water and can be observed regularly rising to the surface of the water to renew the air in their swim bladders. Florida gars are sometimes confused with a similarly shaped but unrelated needlefish, which are marine but commonly enter freshwater. Needlefish are greenish, bluish, or silvery and have a translucent appearance, hi marked contrast to the darker and opaque Florida gars. 10. What does the passage mainly discuss? (A) The different types of gar that live in North America (B) The type of gar that is common in the Everglades region (C) The similarities between the Florida gar and alligators (D) The different types of fish that live in the Everglades region 11 Which of ihe following physical characteristics of the Florida gar is NOT described? (A) Length of snout 14 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (B) Strength of bones (C) Type of teeth (D) Shape of body 12. The passage mentions which of the following as changes that occur when young gars grow to be adults? (A) The number of spots and patches on their bodies increase*. (B) They become extremely large. (C) Their teeth become sharper. (D) They become darker. 13. The word "seldom" in line 9 is closest in meaning to (A) slightfy (B) similarly (C) rarely (D) apparently 14. The word "adept" in line 11 is closest in meaning to (A) skilled (B) unusual (C) alone (D) observed 15. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a method that Florida gars use to obtain food? (A) Using a sideways movement (B) Following prey slowly (C) Finding prey that swim near the surface (D) Catching prey that swim in large groups 16. According to the passage, why are Florida gars sometimes concentrated in large numbers? (A) Low water restricts them to certain areas. (B) Swimming in groups protects them from predators. (C) They form large groups to reproduce (D) They migrate from the marshes each year. 17. The word "they" in line 17 refers to (A) individuals (B) expanses . (C) marshes (D) habitats 18. The word "dual” in line 21 is closet in meaning to 15 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (A) complex (B) useful (C) deep (D) double 19. Which of the following is a characteristic of both needlefish and Florida gars? (A) A primitive method of breathing (B) A long, slender body (C) Brightly colored markings (D) A translucent appearance Questions 20-29 The Native American people of Oregon transported themselves and their goods on foot, by canoe, by raft, by dog, and by horse. Each tribe used a combination of methods, choosing the mode of transportation best suited to the terrain, the type of load, and the Line desired speed. Since each band and local group had a different pattern of settlement and 5 easonal movement, the mixture of transportation methods differed from group to group and from season to season. Long-distance travel by foot was common all over Oregon. In rougher parts of the inland valleys area and in eastern Oregon prior to the arrival of the horse (first introduced to the area some 300 years ago), it was the principal mode of long-distance travel. Foot 10 trails wound across most mountain passes and were important in maintaining the vast Native American trading network. Leather moccasins and Cute sandals were worn for long hikes and for protection against cold, rather than for everyday use. In winter, snowshoes were used for hunting expeditions, ID the Klamath area, where lakes were well stocked 15 20 with waterfowl and plant products, Native Americans used mudshoes (built similarly to snowshoes) to keep from sinking in the mud. Canoes and rafts were osed by Native Americans in all parts of Oregon, although they were not a major method of travel in eastern Oregon. The boat* were used on lakes and rivers for fishing, gathering water plants, bird hunting, and travel. Native Americans from Oregon occasionally ventured to sea for seal hunts, but long sea voyages were much less common than they were further north among the Nootka, Kwakiutl, and Halda people. The use of canoes along the Columbia River contributed to the development of trading and continued, communication among neighboring tribes. Most Oregon canoes were made by hollowing logs. The wooden dugout was uniquely suited to western Oregon's plentiful supply of timber. The canoes were expertly carved in a variety of shapes and sizes to ensure a smooth and quiet voyage even in rough waters. 20. According to the passage, all of the following affected the choice of transportation EXCEPT (A) the type of land that had to be traveled (B) what was to be carried (C) how fast an Item needed to be transported (D) the cost of transportation 16 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 21. The word "principal" in line 9 is closest in meaning to (A) original (B) simple (C) main (D) ordinary 22. According to the passage, the horse (A) could not be used for long distance travel (B) replaced traveling by foot in more rugged areas (C) Improved the quality of mountain foot trails (D) was an important part of Oregon's culture 23. According to the passage, tube sandals were used for (A) waiting great distances (B) wanner weather (C) wearing every day (D) walking in mud 24. The word "stocked" in line 13 is closest in meaning to (A) utilized (B) endangered (C) supplied (D) hunted 25. The word "they" in line 20 refers to (A) long sea voyages (B) Native Americana (C) seal hunts (D) canoes 26. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as uses of die canoe EXCEPT (A) hunting animals (B) fishing (C) carrying timber (D) collecting plants 27. The word "ensure" in tine 25 is closest in meaning to (A) guarantee (B) decrease (C) convince (D) continue 17 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 28. The passage supports which of the following statements about Native American trade in Oregon? (A) Trade was limited by the mountainous terrain, (B) Trade was more depended oc the canoe than on any other form of travel. (C) Items related to transportation were typical trade products. (D) Transportation contributed to the development and maintenance of trade. 29. The passage most likely continues with a discussion of (A) the process of seal hunting (B) transportation by dog and horse (C) winter transportation methods (D) transportation outside of Oregon Questions 30-39 The atmosphere of Venus is quite different from ours. Measurements taken from the Earth show a high concentration of carton dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus. In fact, carbon dioxide makes up 96 percent of Venus* atmosphere; nitrogen makes up almost all Line the rest. The Earth's atmosphere, by comparison, is mainly nitrogen, with a fair amount 5 of oxygen as well. Carbon dioxide makes up less than 0.1 percent of the terrestrial atmosphere, The surface pressure of Venus* atmosphere is 90 limes higher than the pressure of Earth's atmosphere, as a result of the large amount of carbon dioxide in the former. Throughout Earth's history, carbon dioxide on Earth has mixed with rain to dissolve 10 15 20 25 rocks; the dissolved rock and carbon dioxide eventually flow into the oceans, where they precipitate to fonn new terrestrial rocks, often with the help of life-forms. If this carbon dioside were released from the Earth's rocks, along with ower carton dioxide trapped in seawater, our atmosphere would become as dense and have as high a preasore as that of Venus. Venus, slightly closer to the Sun than Earth and thus hotter, had no'oceans in which the carbon dioxide could dissolve or life to help take up the carbon. Also, Venus has probably lost almost all the water it ever had. Since Venus is closer to the Sun than the Earth is, its lower atmosphere was hotter even early on. The result was that more water vapor went into its upper atmosphere, where solar ultraviolet rays broke in up into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen, a light gas, escaped easily; the oxygen has combined with other gasses or with iron on Venus1 surface. Studies from the Earth show that the clouds on Venus are primarily composed of droplets of sulfuric acid, with water droplets mixed in* Sulfuric acid may sound strange as a cloud constituent, but the Earth too has a significant layer of sulfuric acid droplets in its stratosphere. However, the water in the lower layers of the Earth's atmosphere, circulating because of weather, washes the sulfur compounds out of these layers, whereas Venus has sulfur compounds in me lower layers of its atmosphere in addition to those in its clouds. 18 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 30. What does the passage mainly discuss? (A) Atmospheric differences between Venus and Earth (B) How Venus lost the water it once had (C) The influence of the Sun on Venus (D) A comparison between the upper and lower atmosphere on Venus 31 The phrase “the former” in line8 refers to (A) the surface pressure (B) Venus1 atmosphere (C) Earth's atmosphere (D) a result 32. The word "eventually1* in line 10 is closest in meaning to (A) in the past (B) first (C) ultimately (D) occasionally 33. According to the passage, what causes Venus' high surface pressure? (A) Dissolving rocks (B) Frequent heavy rains (C) Its distance from the Sun (D) The composition of its atmosphere 34. Why does the author begin the sentence in lines 11-12 with the phrase "If this carbon dioxide were released from Earth's rocks,.-."' (A) To present a situation that is contrary to fact (B) To convince readers that a certain process is harmless (C) To describe an event that took place long ago (D) To explain what is likely to happen in the future 35. The word "trapped" in line 12 is closest in meaning to (A) caught (B) transported (C) lacking (D) involved 36. According to the passage, which of the following has resulted from processes involving Earth’s carbon dioxide? (A) A steady increase in the density of Earth’s atmosphere (B) An increased rate at which rock dissolves (C) The accumulation of carbon dioxide in Earth’s rocks 19 Copyright 2005 by Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (D) The expansion of Earth’s oceans 37. The passage suggests that which of the following helps explain; why Earth has kept most of its water? (A) Earth's surface contains only small amounts of iron. (B) Earth has always been cooler than Venus. (C) Earth now has higher amounts of carbon dioxide than it used to have. (D) Earth's atmosphere has never completely blocked sulfuric acid droplets, 38. Avoiding to the passage, what happened to oxygen on Venus'? (A) Most of it was absorbed into rocks. (B) It was released from water and then combined with other substances. (C) It chemically combined with hydrogen to form atmospheric water, (D) It has been slowly replacing carbon dioxide in Venus' upper atmosphere, 39. The word "constituent” in line 23 is closest in meaning to (A) type (B) alternative (C) product (D) component Questions 40-50 In the years leading up to the First World War, the realist tradition in the United States was given new life within the ranks of the so-called Ashcan School, a term that loosely describes a group of artists in New York who favored, as the name implies, commonplace Line subjects, even ones that emphasized the seedy aspects of daily life. In an era when the 5 United States was shifting from an agricultural to an industrially based economy, artists turned to the vitality of the city for their themes, sometimes documenting the lives of the nation's urban inhabitants with a literalness that shocked viewers accustomed to the bland generalizations of academic art. Thus, the first modern American revolution in painting in the early twentieth century was not away from, but toward, realism. 10 The developments toward realism and new pictorial subject matter introduced by this revolution are explained in part by the fact that the academic spirit had become anathema to many young painters by the beginning of the twentieth century, when the professional survival of an artist was largely contingent on membership in the National Academy of 15 20 Design, the American equivalent of the French Academy of Aits. The National Academy of Design perpetuated the Traditions of ftp French Academy, such as annual juried exhibitions. Although it merged with the more tolerant Society of American Artists in 1907, it remained steadfastly intolerant of new developments. At the same time, important venues in New York, particularly Alfred Stteglitz's gallery known as 291 and* in 1913, the gigantic exhibition of modern art known as the Armory Show, introduced European modernists to American audiences and nurtured a number of American artists committed not to realism but to experimental art During the 1930's, the country's focus turned inward, giving rise to new varieties of realist art based on 20
- Xem thêm -

Tài liệu liên quan